S ubjects Zapka et al. Social sexnetwork 2 b street eai- more, M aryland Latkin, Eligibility requirements gus and sexnetwoek colleagues found a high degree of senetwork were a minimum Socal of 18 years, having injected drugs dant H IV risk behaviors among drug sharing Social sexnetwork 2 b street within the last 6 months, and having never been en- N eaigus et al. Those accepted were given an in-person interview authors also report a significant association between eliciting socio-demographic background, life events, number of contacts with network members and H IV- substance use, H IV-related risk behaviors, and personal risky injecting behaviors N eaigus et al.
U sing social network characteristics. The data for the present samples recruited from the AID S linked to intravenous study were collected between — at the baseline experiences ALIVE study, a study of the natural interview prior to an H IV preventive intervention. On the other 2. They also injecting behaviors during the preceding 6 months, found that the size of drug network and network including sharing needles Social sexnetwork 2 b street injecting drugs in shoot- density were positively associated with needle-sharing, ing galleries.
S ocial network instrument 3. F ourteen percent of respondents provide support in each of six domains in the previous reported that they had Ladies looking hot sex Raymond Mississippi told by a doctor or a nurse 6 months: The respondents the store for you, and things like that?
H ereafter these groups are total network was 7. D rug networks were then di- vided into two subgroups: The structural network char- acteristic of network density was assessed.Ladies Looking Nsa Everly Iowa
These social network variables were di- G ender male Both the categorical and the Education B12th grades The subsequent H omeless R ange Proportion of total network Total network 7. After controlling for demographic 0. Thirty- Sociap characteristics in the multivariate analyses, the five percent 0. M sesnetwork relationships with drug network members providing support stem D rug network D rug network Social sexnetwork 2 b street from Trying to ride passadenas hottest kinship and sexual partner relation- Social sexnetwork 2 b street sup- providing support ships Table 4.
A large portion of drug sharing-only port relationships stem from an informal business relation- Immediate familyb 61 2.
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That is, ID U s with large drug network size of drug network was positively associated with members providing support were more likely to partici- important H IV risk injecting behaviors. The size of pate in sharing needles, while ID U s with large drug drug subnetwork members also providing social sup- network members not providing support were more port was associated with greater risk for sharing likely to Social sexnetwork 2 b street in shooting galleries.
That srreet, Social sexnetwork 2 b street U s with dense network were injecting in shooting galleries, but not with sharing less likely to inject in shooting galleries. These results suggest Housewives looking nsa FL Chipley 32428 ID U s are more likely controlled for other possible confounders in multivari- to share needles with drug networks providing support, ate analyses, the association became not significant.
ID U g might be concerned that not-sharing needles would lose them social support from network members. This explanation is supported by the fact that 4. Social sexnetwork 2 b street significant rela- and Sexy ladies seeking nsa West Wiltshire characteristics of their social networks.
We are also limited in controlling possi- ID U s with large Social sexnetwork 2 b street networks not providing sup- ble confounding factors, such as anti-social personality port were more likely to inject drugs in shooting gal- disorder, which are not assessed in this study, but may leries.
H aving a large drug network providing social influence both social network characteristics and H IV support did not increase risk of injecting in shooting risk behaviors. F inally, many other factors, individual galleries as much as having a large drug network not or social, can predict H IV risk behaviors among injec- providing support.
This difference may be explained by tion drug users. Therefore, social network characteris- drug networks which provide support being more likely tics, the focus of this study, explain a part of their H IV to provide injecting places and strert needles so that risk behaviors.
ID U s did not have to inject Social sexnetwork 2 b street in shooting galleries. The findings suggest that social support from drug report R eliability and validity of self-reported illegal activities and behavior because it is embedded in kinship or sexual drug use collected from narcotic addicts. It may be more realistic to em- Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for H IV preven- Before firm conclusions are drawn, several study tion among injecting drug users.
AID S 7, — The samples were Baker, A. They were recruited primarily strret word among injecting drug users not in treatment. AID S Care 6, — A method for assessing social support networks return for an economic incentive. This may bias the in community survey research. Connections 3, 8 — Social sexnetwork 2 b street Social support in the adjustment of pregnant Another A sexy play mate of the study is that of self-report adolescents: The relationship of social networks and social self-reports by drug addicts on criminal or drug behav- support to morbidity and mortality.
H owever, G ibson and Young retest reliability streef personal network delineation. Antonucci, found that self-reported injection behavior was sexnetwoork T. In addition, we are limited in N etherlands. R isk acteristics because the data in this study were cross-sec- factors for shooting gallery use and cessation among intravenous tional. Although less plausible, it is still possible that Beautiful older ladies searching flirt Montpelier Vermont users.
Public H ealth 81, — A personal network approach to AID S prevention: D rug-related behavior change for H IV transmission Social sexnetwork 2 b street an experimental peer group intervention for street-injecting drug injection drug users.
Addiction 89, — Issues in the study and application of R. Social sexnetwork 2 b street competencies, peer tano, D. U sing social network analysis to group affiliation, and risk behavior among early adolescents.
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K nowledge about Latkin, C. Personal network characteristics as antecedents of tion program. Results from that study demonstrated that among never-injectors and former-injectors, factors Social sexnetwork 2 b street to communication promoting injection were associated with both the initial transition to injection-use among never-injectors, and a return Social sexnetwork 2 b street injection-use among former-injectors [ 24 sexnetowrk. With the exception of this study, there has been little other research in this area, particularly in the context of the Chinese collectivist culture.
We than assessed which social network dimensions were most strongly associated Social sexnetwork 2 b street the transition to injecting heroin. This study was conducted in two contiguous small counties in Yunnan in Yunnan is a southwestern province of China bordering Socjal, Laos and Vietnam. One of the primary routes through which heroin and opium enter China is from Myanmar to Yunnan [ 25 ]. To determine if participants started Housewives looking sex Aberdeen heroin or opium via non-injection methods, Hot ladies wants real sex Dodge City were each asked what mode of Social sexnetwork 2 b street they employed at the first time of drug use.
For transitioned heroin injectors, the eligibility criteria included: Heroin-injection was defined as intravenous into the veinsintramuscular into the musclesor subcutaneous under the skin only. Respondent-driven sampling RDSa network-based sampling approach, was used to recruit participants. Based on the findings of the qualitative studies and with Social sexnetwork 2 b street help of outreach volunteers, we selected a group of 14 seeds.
The unique serial number on each coupon linked each subject to his or her recruits. Three recruitment and interview sites were set up in the two small contiguous counties. The selection of the sites was based on two conditions: Twelve seeds out of 14 successfully recruited other drug users. Our evaluation of the RDS sample indicated its success in reaching the convergence of RDS compositions and including a broad cross-section of this hidden population.
Eligible subjects recruited by the seeds and new recruits in subsequent waves participated in Sociql face-to-face anonymous interview in Social sexnetwork 2 b street private room. All interviewers received training in interviewing techniques, developing rapport, ensuring confidentiality, and answering questions raised by subjects.
The questionnaire was pilot-tested among five heroin and opium users. Egos were asked to provide socio-demographic information such as their sexmetwork date, years of formal education that is, total number of years spent in schoolethnicity majority Han ethnicity or minority ethnic groupsand employment status currently employed or unemployed.
Several approaches were used seexnetwork reduce recall bias. For example, if respondents had difficulty in recalling these activities and social network factors potentially associated with the transition, interviewers prompted them with important personal events e. Studies have documented that activities surrounding initiation into drug use have been vividly recalled by injection drug users [ 2627 ] and current and retrospective self-reporting of high risk behaviors have been shown to be valid and reliable in drug using populations [ 28 — 30 ].
In addition, egos were asked to list individuals who syreet Social sexnetwork 2 b street sexual partners sex network and individuals with whom they used heroin or opium together or shared needles drug-use network. The type of relationship between egos and alters was measured by asking respondents to indicate which of their network members were family members includes spouses and kinfriends and sexual partners.
Scores of closeness and trust were summed sexnetwogk all alters listed by an ego. Network structural characteristics assessed included: Density refers to the proportion of ties in a network relative to the total number of possible ties.Marshall Arkansas Female Sex With Student Horney Havelock Iowa Girls
Respondents egos were given a matrix with the names of their network members alters shown on both dimensions, and sfreet were asked to indicate the alters in their personal network who knew each other. Density was calculated as the total number of actual ties or connections divided by Social sexnetwork 2 b street total number of possible ties.
Each of the two support functions was operationalized with three items [ 32 ]. Respondents egos rated the possibility 0—4; not possible at all, not sure, somewhat possible, quite possible, quite sure that the alter could provide the support of social Housewives looking real sex Coral gables Florida 33133 that they perceived to be available from each of their network alters.
The total score for senxetwork type of social support was calculated by summing all item scores. Total scores of each functional support that an ego Social sexnetwork 2 b street to receive from his alters were calculated by summing the three item scores. Two types of subjective norms were measured: To measure positive subjective norms, egos were asked to indicate which alters in their social network had ever encouraged them to not inject heroin 0—2: Similarly, for negative subjective norms, egos were asked to indicate which alters in their social network had ever encouraged them to inject heroin.
One item was used to measure the level of descriptive norms: Model 1 included only network-relation variables. In model 2, network-structure variables were added to model 1. Model 3 was the full model including all candidate variables of the three social network dimensions.
All possible interaction effects Soocial also tested. Data were weighted to account for potential sampling bias in the respondent-driven sampling, since Fucking horny chat with larger networks and egos who recruit others like themselves homophily Social sexnetwork 2 b street to be overrepresented [ 33 ].
A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to compare results from the weighted multivariate regression with results from the unweighted multivariate regression [ 34 ].
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Table 1 presents a profile of the Sociall sample. Twenty-three of these drug users reported having injected heroin at the first time of drug use, and Women looking sex Wallingford Vermont were excluded from all subsequent analyses.
The majority of drug users were Social sexnetwork 2 b street The mean age for injectors was The median duration of injection was 9 years range 1—17 yearsfrom the transition dates to the dates when Social sexnetwork 2 b street were interviewed. On average, injectors had about 7.
The median number of male alters in the personal networks of transitioned injectors was 6, while that for their non-transitioned counterparts was 4. With regards to age, sexnrtwork Injectors had a median of 3 alters with a middle-school education or above in their personal networks, while non-injectors had a median of 4 alters with a middle-school education or above.
There was no significant difference between the mean amount of trust in and closeness to alters between the two groups Table 2.
Stree analysis showing differences in social network dimensions among injectors and non-injectors. However, the mean network density was Socjal in both groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups for both tangible and Social sexnetwork 2 b street support received from family member alters. However there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the levels of positive subjective norms that is, the total number of network alters who encouraged injecting heroin users to not inject heroin.
Egos with larger sex networks were 1. No other network relation variables are significant. With regards Girls to fuck Barnstable redbone seeking aa male non-network variables associated with Social sexnetwork 2 b street to heroin injection, older egos were 1.
Being unemployed was also a risk factor for transitioning to injection-use: Association between social network dimensions and transition to injection-use from non-injection use.
Candidate variables in Model 2 sgreet both network-relation variables and network-structure variables. Adding two factors of network structures total network size and network density did not substantially change the results generated in Model 1.
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The two factors of network structure were not statistically significantly associated with the transition. Model 3 the full model that includes candidate variables of the three social secnetwork dimensions documented Social sexnetwork 2 b street following statistically significant associations: No significant difference was found between the odds of transitioning to heroin injection among egos who perceived receiving tangible support Social sexnetwork 2 b street the various types of network alters.
Due to high collinearity between variables for tangible and emotional support variance Social sexnetwork 2 b street factors greater than 10only tangible support is included in Model 3. With the exception of the addition of network-function variables, there are few differences between the strwet obtained from the three models Socia regards to the association between social network variables and transitioning strete injection-use.
In Model 3, the only difference is that network density becomes marginally significant. Results from the sensitivity analysis comparing the RDS-weighted and unweighted models results not shown showed that all the associations between social network dimensions and transitioning to heroin-injection held.
The second sensitivity analysis documented that similar results were generated in the whole sample including non-injection drug users and injectors and in the subsample including all non-injection drug users and injectors who had injected heroin for five years or less.
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This study has several strengths that will contribute to the existing literature. First, with the exception of Neaigus et al. Secondly, few have examined the influence of social network support factors in injection drug use transition.
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Streett, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has examined the role of social network dimensions in injection drug use transition in the context of Chinese culture, which is unique due to its strret on collectivist culture. One study found that among drug users in Amsterdam, having an injector as a sexual partner was positively associated with transitioning to injection drug use [ 35 ]. Another study also found that among drug users who have Kearney abs swinger couples injected drugs, greater exposure to current injection drug users was associated with transitioning to injection drug use [ 24 ].
This sexnetworm behavior then spreads throughout the social network through various ways such as observation. That is, those who have not yet adopted the new behavior may be influenced to do so by observing their peers engage in that particular behavior [ Social sexnetwork 2 b street ]. Results from our study may be explained by the nature of Chinese culture and society. This indicates that peer behavior is valued as a more accurate measure of what other drug users really think zexnetwork feel.
Generally, behavior carries more weight than words since it is a far more reliable and valid measure of reality, and Socal as evidence or proof of what an individual says [ 37 ]. Previous research has linked higher levels of injunctive norms to increased injection risk behaviors among male injectors [ 41 ], and the majority of drug users in this sample are male.
This study also found that network density was associated with transitioning to injection-use, Social sexnetwork 2 b street the statistically significant level is marginal.
However, due to the marginal significance, further research to confirm the result is needed. There are several limitations associated with this study. First, although approaches were used to assist subjects to recall needed ssxnetwork, injectors who transitioned to Social sexnetwork 2 b street injection 6 years or more ago might not accurately recall information about social networks.
However, our sensitivity analysis indicated that the bias might not be substantial. Second, since information for the three social network dimensions were collected in sexnetworo 30 days prior to transition for injectors, Horny milf in Donahue Iowa the 30 days prior to the sexmetwork for non-injectors, it is possible that there was a mismatch between social network factors that measured at the time of transition among injectors and those factors that were measured at the time when non-injection drug users were interviewed.
Third, statistical methods for conducting multivariate analyses on Social sexnetwork 2 b street data are still being developed, which is why results from the RDS-weighted regression analysis were compared with those obtained from the unweighted regression analysis [ 42 ]. Further, since this is a cross-sectional study, no conclusions can sexetwork drawn about causation. Finally, study participants were recruited from Yunnan province and thus are Social sexnetwork 2 b street necessarily representative of all drug users in China.
Due to the role played by injection drug users in transmitting Sexnetsork to the general population in China, preventing the transition to injection drug use among non-injection drug users may be particularly important in curbing the spread of the disease in China.
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To reduce the transition to injection drug use among this population, behavioral intervention programs are essential and must target not only individual swxnetwork users, but also other drug users in their social network. In Social sexnetwork 2 b street approach, drug-use peers who are popular or respected by others can be selected from social networks. They can be trained to endorse non-injection practices, and increase awareness about the risks involved Social sexnetwork 2 b street this transition in their social networks.
Future research is needed to test the effectiveness of the POL intervention targeting the transition to heroin injection in China or other countries with similar settings.
It was awarded to Hongjie Liu and Jianhua Li. We are grateful to the staff from Yunnan Institute of Drug Abuse sexnewtork their participation in the study, and to all the participants who gave so willingly of their time to provide the study data.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. See other articles in PMC that cite the sexnetqork article. Introduction Currently, the HIV epidemic in China remains one of low prevalence overall, but with pockets of high infection among specific Social sexnetwork 2 b street and in some localities [ 1 ].